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Corrosion Fundamentals

Intergranular Corrosion

Intergranular corrosion is an attack on or adjacent to the grain boundaries of a metal or alloy. A highly magnified cross section of most commercial alloys will show its granular structure. This structure consists of quantities of individual grains, and each of these tiny grains has a clearly defined boundary that chemically differs from the metal within the grain center. Heat treatment of stainless steels and aluminum alloys accentuates this problem.

Intergranular Corrosion of Weld Area

The picture above shows a stainless steel which corroded in the heat affected zone a short distance from the weld. This is typical of intergranular corrosion in austenitic stainless steels. This corrosion can be eliminated by using stabilized stainless steels (321 or 347) or by using low-carbon stainless grades (304L or 3I6L).

Heat-treatable aluminum alloys (2000, 6000, and 7000 series alloys) can also have this problem. See the section on exfoliation corrosion below.

Exfoliation Corrosion

Exfloiation Corrosion of a Fire Hydrant

Exfoliation is a form of intergranular corrosion. It manifests itself by lifting up the surface grains of a metal by the force of expanding corrosion products occurring at the grain boundaries just below the surface. It is visible evidence of intergranular corrosion and most often seen on extruded sections where grain thickness is less than in rolled forms. This form of corrosion is common on aluminum, and it may occur on carbon steel.

Exfoliation of an Aluminum Guardrail

Exfoliation of Stair Step

The picture on the left shows exfoliation of aluminum. Exfoliation of carbon steel is apparent in the channel on the coating exposure panel on the right. The expansion of the metal caused by exfoliation corrosion can create stresses that bend or break connections and lead to structural failure.

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